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Somalia: Timeline for Puntland Constitutional and Democratization Process

Puntland State of Somalia


Timeline for Puntland Constitutional and Democratization Process


Transitioning from Clan-Based Government System to Constitutional System of Multiparty Democracy in Puntland State of Somalia

January 1, 2013


February 25, 1998 – March 12, 1998

  • Garowe Consultative Conference attended by communities of Northeastern Somalia, with consultative discussions centered on establishing a shared administration in light of growing insecurity and political disorder in Somalia

May 15, 1998 – August 1, 1998

  • Garowe Constitutional Convention attended by titled traditional elders and 480 Convention Delegates from five Administrative Regions (Bari, Nugal, Mudug, Sool, and Sanaag) and one District (Buhodle)
  • Convention establishes Puntland State of Somalia and agrees on Garowe as Capital City of Puntland State of Somalia
  • Convention approves a Provisional Charter (August 1998 – June 2001), with an independent Judiciary, a 66-member clan-based Parliament – nominated by Puntland traditional elders – that elects a President and Vice President for a three-year interim period

August 1, 1998 – June 30, 2001

  • The first President of Puntland H.E. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed and Vice President H.E. Mohamed Abdi Hashi serve a three-year interim period

July 1, 2001 – May 17, 2003

  • Puntland undergoes a period of constitutional crisis – leading to armed dispute between two political factions
  • On May 17, 2003, the two political factions sign a peace agreement in Bossaso

May 17, 2003 – January 8, 2005

  • H.E. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed continues to serve as President of Puntland, until October 10, 2004, when Yusuf was elected as President of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia
  • The Puntland Vice President H.E. Mohamed Abdi Hashi assumes power as President of Puntland, until presidential election of January 8, 2005

January 8, 2005

  • H.E. Mohamud Muse Hersi (Adde Muse) and H.E. Hassan Dahir Mohamud (Afqurac) elected as President and Vice President of Puntland, respectively

December 2006

  • Puntland President H.E. Adde Muse issues a five-point presidential decree, highlighting issues of: a) constitutional review process; b) nomination of electoral commission; c) public dissemination; d) referendum; and e) local and parliamentary elections

February 2007

  • Puntland President H.E. Adde Muse appoints 14-member Constitution Review Committee, to work with local and international partners, including PDRC and Interpeace for technical and financial support
  • Constitution Review Committee reviews the Draft Constitution and conducts public consultations and public dissemination of Draft Constitution

June 2, 2008

  • Constitution Review Committee presents Draft Puntland Constitution to Puntland Council of Ministers, which debates, approves and submits the Draft Constitution to the Puntland Parliament

November 2008

  • Temporary Puntland Electoral Commission is nominated to conform set of criteria for new Members of Parliament selected by traditional elders and civil society


January 8, 2009

  • H.E. Abdirahman Mohamed Mohamud (Farole) and H.E. Abdisamad Ali Shire elected as President and Vice President of Puntland, respectively

February 2009

  • President Farole nominates Puntland State Minister of the Presidency for Democratization Process and Federal Affairs
  • Puntland Government requests Puntland Parliament to return Draft Constitution to Government for further review and public consultations, to conform to Islamic law and international standards

June 15, 2009

  • Puntland Parliament approves revised draft of the Puntland Constitution, reviewed and approved by the Puntland Council of Ministers


Puntland Democratization Milestones


January 2, 2011

  • Puntland Parliament approves Puntland Electoral Commission Law

July 17, 2011

  • Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission (TPEC) established

November 29, 2011

  • Puntland Parliament approves Puntland Referendum Law

April 18, 2012

  • The Puntland Constituent Assembly convention adopts the Puntland Constitution in Garowe, in the presence of titled traditional elders, Puntland civil society, TFG Ministers, international diplomats and donor community members, United Nations representatives, and local and international media
  • Puntland Supreme Court certifies and endorses constitutional adoption

June 2012

  • Puntland Parliament approves Puntland Local Elections Law

September 2, 2012

  • Puntland Parliament approves Puntland Political Associations Law

September 11, 2012

  • Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission announces the opening period for the registration of Political Associations in Puntland

November 13, 2012

  • With a proposal from TPEC, Puntland Parliament amends the Political Associations Law to ease up the registration process and the registration fee was reduced by half

September 11 – December 31, 2012

  • Nine political associations declared in Puntland

December 31, 2012

  • By the closing day for the registration period, the Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission announces that six Political Associations have been provisionally registered and met the requirements set by TPEC for the first phase of the registration
  • The Political Associations that qualify under the second phase of the registration process will participate in upcoming Local Council elections, scheduled for May 2013

January 1, 2013 – January 8, 2014 (Way Forward)

  • Local Council elections will be followed by:
    • Declaration of three official Political Parties of Puntland
    • The three Political Parties will each appoint their members to the permanent Puntland Electoral Commission to guide upcoming parliamentary and presidential elections
    • Parliamentary elections
    • Presidential elections (President and Vice President)
    • The Roadmap for the remaining milestones of the Puntland Democratization Process has been set and published by the Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission (TPEC)

Source: Puntland Government

Statement by the UN Special Representative for Somalia on the state-building conferences in Baidoa
Puntland President condemns the terrorist attack at Villa Somalia
UN envoy condemns attack on Somali government


Vacancy Anouncment Legal Advisor for the Puntland House of Representatives


Somalia: Federal Govt troops foil attack on police station in central town

BELEDWEYNE, Somalia April 23, 2014 (Garowe Online)

Somalia: Night raid operation targets senior Al Shabaab officials

UN envoy to Somalia condemns MP, journalist murder in Mogadishu

Somalia: Burundi President arrives in Mogadishu on first visit

Somalia: Puntland Police arrest former Federal MP

Somalia: Former warlord refuses to lay down arms

Somalia: Bomb blast in Mogadishu kills Federal MP

Somalia's President stresses need for stability at National Conference on Security

Somalia: Khat plane veers off runway in central town

Somalia: Puntland Defence Forces urged to confront Somaliland, Al Shabaab

Somalia: Military in deadly battle with police in Middle Shabelle

Somalia: Al Shabaab fighters ambush Federal Govt troops in Bay, 6 militants killed

Somalia: Ugandan Guard Unit arrives in Mogadishu for UN personnel, bases protection

Somalia: Somaliland forces withdraw from historic town of Taleh

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