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Fikradaha
"Sahminta inta badan fikirka amniga aadanaha [human security], wuxuu abuuraa iskaashi dheeli tira".

Taarikhiyan Amaanka had iyo jeer wuxu ahaa walaac - halis ayaa mar walba jirtay oo la noolaan jirtay bini aadamka - ilaa intii colaadi jirtay amni daro waa jirtay. Marka laga eego aragtida siyaasadeed “amnigu waa mid aan laga maarmi karin siyaasad ahaan, waa mid door muhiim ah ka ciyaara go’aaminta cidda yeelanaysa, goorta, iyo sida ay siyaasadda adduunka ay tahay” (Lasswell, cited in Williams, 2012 p. 1).

Ka dib dagaalkii qaboobaa, khilaafkiisa dib-u-qeexidda ee daraasadaha amniga ayaa door wayn qaatay. Khatarta iyo hanjabaadaha dunidu la kulantay mudadaas, waxay furtay daaqad si dib looga fiirsado amniga qaacido ahaan (Mutimer, 2010 p. 47). Ereyga amniga, ka dib dagaalkii qaboobaa, wuxuu qaaday wado ka duwan qeexitaankiisii caadiga ahaa ee fikradda amniga lagana qaatay, daraasado amni oo aad u adag ka dib.

Tusaale ahaan, daraasadaha amniga soo jireenka ama dhaqameedka ah, waxay mudnaanta koowaad ka dhigayaan caqabadaha juqraafi iyo sidoo kale cilladaha isku-xirnaanta caalamiga ka dhasha. Fikirka amniga ee Wadan ama Gobal waxay u muuqatay inay tahay strategy kaliya lagu xoojiyo hal tiir oo ka mid ah tiirarka aasaasiga ah ee fikirka dawladda. Halkaasi Waxaa laga tagay mabda'a aasaasiga ahaa ee doorka qaab dhismeedka bulshada, waxayna si khaldan u saamaysay oo saameyn xun ku yeelatay waxqabadka dowladd laga filayo dhanka amniga (Baldwin 1995, p. 126). Hadaba isbedelka aragtida amniga caalamka ka dhalatay dagaalkii qaboobaa ka dib, ayaa beddeshay heerka loo qoondeeyay sidii horey loogu qeexay amniga. Tusaale ahaan, ka hor dagaalkii qaboobaa gebi ahaanba amniga waxaa lagu aaminay Gobalka/Dalka.

Gobalku mas'uul wuxu ka ahaa waajibaadka ah in mudnaanta koowaad siinayo doorka amniga, sida; juqraafiga iyo militariga, ilaa colaada u dhaxaysa Galbeedka iyo Bariga la soo af-jarayo (Mutimer, 2010 p . 47). Daraasad kale oo la soo gabagabeeyey intii lagu gudajiray dagaalkii qaboobaa Williams (2012, p.27) waxay muujisay in, “si kastaba ha noqotee inta lagu gudajiray tacliinta/academic IR, amniga, badiba waxaa lagu xiriiriyaa 'gobolka', waxaana si gaara loogu sii xiraariyaa in uu yahay ‘danta guud’. Bartamihii qarnigii labaatanaad, doodo cusub oo dib loogu qiimeynayo sida, ‘muxu ' amni yahay, na farayaa ama ka koobnaan karaa, ‘doorkee’ amnigu ajendayaasha siyaasadeed ee gobolka kaga jirayaa, su’aalahaas iyo kuwa badan oo kale waxay ka soo muuqdeen miiska/gudaha IR (International Relations).

Cilmibaarisyo fara badan ayaa ku dooday gebi ahaanba fikradaha kala duwan ee amniga, marka loo eego sidii hore loo yaqaan, i.e. amniga militariga oo sida caadiga ah loo fahamsanaa in uu yahay nabadgeliyada, xilligii kaligii taliyaashu aduunka hagayeen siyaasadiisa amniga. Inta badan doodaha xasaasiga ah waxay sababeen in xal loo helo dhinacyadii la dayacay intii lagu guda jiray tartankii xari-jiidka awoodda Galbeedka iyo Bariga.

Sidaa darteed, aqoonbaarista ugu badan uguna saamaynta badan, waxay iftiimisay muhimadda kor loogu qaado sharafta aadanaha marka laga shaqaynayo amniga. Williams (2012, p. wuxuu cadeeyay in, “qaar ka mid ah falanqeeyayaasha cilmiga durugsan u leh amniga ayaa sheegay, arrimaha mudnaanta koowaad la siiyo waa in ay noqdaan aadanaha marka laga shaqaynayo amniga, sidoo kale, waxay cadeeyeen tan iyo inta aan qiimayn la siinayn aadanaha shaqsi ahaaneed, amni macno malaha”. Tani waxay tahay macnaheedu in sugida amniga uusan ahayn mid lagu haysto dabaqad gooniya, balse loo baahan yahay in hoos loo soo daadajiyo, islamarkaasna cidwalbana iska dhex aragto sugida amnigu in uu yahay mid danta guud ku jirto.

Sahminta inta badan fikirka amniga aadanaha [human security], wuxu abuuraa iskaashi dheeli tira, islamrkaasna wuxu ka soo hor jeedaa in mudnaanta la siiyo koox gaar ah, oo markaa xukuumada oo loola jeedo, i.e., in madaxda sare sugidoodu tahay sugida amniga. Dhaqankii hore [traditiona security], wuxu muuqalka sugnaanta amniga u tusaa shacabkiisa, hubka iyo ciidanka sida gaarka ah madaxda amnigooda loogu sugo uu yahay amni, ama sugidu amnigu in uu yahay mid dhisidiisu ama qaabayntiisu dabaqad gaar ah ay leedahay, islamarkaasna ay dantooda kaliya ku ilaashadaan [hegemony].

Isku-kalsoonaantaas ama isku koobida sammaynta amniga ama ilaalinta amniga, waxay Gobalka/State ku abuurtay in dhexe oo banaan, ka dibna waxa adkaata gobolku si ula tacaalo arrimaha amnidarada, inta badan ka dhasha maqnaashaha dabaqada hoose, kuwaas ay soo food saaraan caqabado dhaqaale - saboolnimada iyo sinnaan la'aanta. Sidaas darteed, jiritaanka xaaladaha murugsan ay keenan amni darada, waxay qasabtay si loo helo xasilooni dhab ah, in xalka guud ama amniga guud talooyinkiisu ay noqdaan kuwo muhiim ah oo loo dhan yahay, dhammaan aragtiyada kala duwanee bulshada ay saameyn ku yeeshaan arrimaha amniga..

Sidaa darted xal u helida amniga waa mid guud mana ah in cid gaara ah, dabaqad gaara, lab ama dhadig si gooniya lagu tagooro oo diiradda lagu saarto koox bulshada ka mid ah, sidaas haday tahay ma aha xalin amni daro ee waa samayn xasilooni daro. Williams (2012, p. 9) wuxuu caddeeyay “amniga marka la dhisay waxa muhiim ah in fiiro gaar ah la siiyo sida wakiilad kooxaha gaarka ah ee matala ururradu bulshada ay u soo jeediyaan figradaha halista amni. Waxaa kale oo muhiim ah in la garto in kooxaha oo dhami aysan wada dhicin, sidaa darteedna dhamaan ajendeyaasha halistooda ay yihiin kuwo loo siman yahay oo siyaasadeesnayn”. In kasta oo doorka bulshada daraasadaha amniga markii hore la yareeyey, hada bulshada casriga ah aragtida qaybaha kala duwan bulshada waa kuwa muhiim ah, waxana loola gol-leeyahay inay sare u qaaddo muhiimadda ay leedahay wadaagista mas'uuliyadda wadajirka.

Tusaale ahaan Copenhagen School or securitization studies, oo ah mac’hadka caalamka ugu horeeya dhanka International Security Study (ISS) wuxu sheegay sida aragtida dumarka amniga ‘Feminist Security Theory’ (FST) qayb looga siiyay xal u helida amniga (UN Security Council voted for unanimously to adopt ‘1325 Resolution), xasiloonida amniga waliba meelaha colaadaha iyo dagaalada sokeeye ka jiraan waxay ku soo kordhisay wax wayn. Hudson (2005, p. 159) wuxuu muujiyey “Haweenku way ka duwan yihiin ragga, sidaa darteedna ku biiristooda fikirka siyaasada iyo amniga sidoo kale way ka duwan yihiin kuwa raga”.

Mararka qaar sugida amniga iyada oo kaliya laga duulayo aragtida raga waxaa dhacda in xad-gudub loo gaysto dumarka iyada oo markaa ragu u rag in ay xad-gudub dumarka u gaysteen. Sidaa darteed, Blanchard (2003, p. 1298) waxa u qeexay “ dib u eegista amniga iyada oo laga duulayo aragtida dumarka, waa in marka hore dalab lagu sameeyaa qaabka xadgudubka dumarka loogaysto u noqday mid la iska qaatay mushtamcuna dhib u arag ka dibna laga shaqeeyaa sidii siyaasad guud looga qaadan lahaa iyada oo daaha laga qaadayo halka dhaqan ahaan ka soo jeedo ficilkaas guunka ah oo la caadaystay”.

Sidoo kale Shepherd (2010, p. 73) wuxu ku dooday “talo ku yeelashda arimaha security ee dhidiga waa in ilgaara loo yeeshaa barashada cilmiga amniga waxay sidaa qiil ugu haynaan ficilada waxyeelda amni darada inta badan waxay ku dhacaan dumarka dushooda”.

Doodahaan cilmi-baariseed iyo soo bandhigida cadeemo ma aha waxa qormadaan kaliya lagu soo koobi karo, balse muhiimadu waxay tahay in la badalo fahamka amniga iyo sugidiisu waxay tahay, guud ahaan Somalia, gaar ahaan Puntland. Qormadan kama hadlin haykalka dooladeed, kala sareeya oo sugi kara amniga tayadiisa iyo aqoontiisa. Qormadaan waxay waxyar ka ifisay talaabada ugu horaysa oo ah qeexista wuxu yahay amni, yay tahay in amnigu sugo iyo kooxaha bulshada kala duwan ay muhiim tahay in ayaguna darafka kaga aadan ka qabtaan xal u hilida amni ay cid walba iska dhex aragto.

Qormada 2aad waxaan kaga hadli doonaa sidoo kale factors keena ama sababa amnidarada.


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Reference:

Bilgin, P 2013, 'Chapter 7 Critical theory', in PD Williams (ed.) 2013, Security Studies: An Introduction, 2nd edn, Routledge, London, pp. 89-102.

Baldwin, D 1995, 'Security studies and the end of the Cold War', World Politics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 117-41.

Hudson, H 2005, “Doing’ security as though humans matter: a feminist perspective on gender and the politics of human security’, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, vol. 362, no. 2, pp. 155-172, viewed 11 June 2017, <http://journals.sagepup.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1177/0967010605054642>

Mutimer, D 2010, 'Chapter 4 Critical security studies', in M Dunn Cavelty & V Mauer (eds) 2010, The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies, Routledge, London.

Shepherd, L 2010, 'Gendered security', in JP Burgess (ed.) 2010, The Routledge Handbook of New Security Studies, Routledge, London, pp. 72-80.

Whitworth, S 2013, 'Chapter 8 Feminisms', in PD Williams (ed.) 2013, Security Studies: An Introduction, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.

Fadlan Ilaali xuquuqda qormada.


Othman MJ

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