Xayndaabka Gumeystihii uu dhex dhigey Qabaa’ilada Soomaaliya Caalamku ma ictiraafsan yahay ?

Soomaliya
By Othman A. Mohamud, Warbixin

Hordhac

Marka hore waxaan Ilaahey ka rajanayaa in dhiig umada Somaliyeed ku daadan khilaaf ka dhesha xayndaab dhul boob ku salaysan oo kala sameysteen dalal Yurub ah oo iyagu dhexdooda dirir ka dhaxaysay.

Qadiyada kala sheegashada xuduudaha Somaliya gudaheeda ma tahay xuduudo rasmiya uu caalamku aqoonsan yahay? Somalidu ma yihiin qoomiyado kala duwan oo xuduudo ama xayndaabyo hore lahaan jiray ka dibna dawladihii isticmaarka ay mideeyen si khasab ah hal dalna laga dhigay sida Ethiopia & Eritrea ku waa oo dib u kala go’ay 1990s?

Hadaba si arinkaa loo xaqiijiyo halka salka ay ku hayso, waxan baaris cilmiyeed ku sameyey marxaladihii kala duwana ay Somalidu soo martay xiliyadii gumeystayaashii kala duwanaa ay Somali isu badaleen gacan ku haynteeda. Sidoo kale baaris cilmiyeedkan wuxuu meesha ka saarayaa tarikhda ama tixraaca khaldan ay reebeen siyaasadaha Somalidu dhexdeeda ku kala xarig-jiidaneysay 27 sano u dambeyay. Islamarkaasna ay koox walba ‘his story’ ay ‘history’ uga dhigayso kuwa kale ka soo hor jeeda.

Hadaba daraasadan waxay baaris ku sameysay qarnigii 16aad ilaa 19aad tarikhda ay Yurub & Carab ka diiwaan galiyeen dadka Somalida ah.

Tarikhda Soomaaliya intii dalalka gumaysiga dhulkooda soo galeen ka dibna deegaamo u kala qaybsadeen qola walba inta ay awoodooda garsiisan tahay sheegtay in gaar u leeyahay.

Tarikha xilayada iyo marxaladaha kala duwan Somalidu soo martey waa mid sugan caalamkuna aqoonyahano kala duwan raad-raac ka reeben. Mudada dambe madama ay Somalia dagaalo sokeeye iyo khilaafyo siyaasaded ku daba dheeraaden. Somalida dhexdeeda waxay isu meerisaa tarikho aan sal iyo raad ku lahayn mida caalamka Somaliya uga diiwan gashan.

Sababta ugu wayn qalindaarka sooyaalka Somalida loogu sameeyo waxaa ka mid ah; inta farta af-Somaligu qorneyd xukuumadii kacaanka ee Siyaad Bare ma aysan reebin taarikh baraxtiran oo laga soo min guuriyey dhinacyo badan oo kala duwan sida; taarikhda gabayada oo suugan badan ku duugan iyo kuwa ay diiwaan galiyeen dad aqoon yahan ah oo ajaanib oo cilm baaris qota dheer sameeyay in tooda badan. Haday taasi jiri lahayd waxaa la heli lahaa taarikh aan dafirin wixi jiray oo la soo maray oo Somalida tarikhdeeda u dhex ah.

Taarikhda Somaliya xiligii Kacaanka la qorey waxay ahayd markii ugu horeysay af-Somali lagu qoro islamarkaasna waxay ahayd markii ugu dambeysay oo taarikh Somaliyeed la diwaan gasho. Waxay kaloo ahayd markii ugu dambeysay ay Somalidu tarikh run ah isu sheegto. Waxaa nasiib daro ah in taarikh Somalia ilaa heer dhamaan dugsiyada iyo jamacadaha dalka laga dhigo la daabaco oo hadana la daabaco taarikh khaldan. U jeedka Kacaaku ka lahaa tarikhda khaldan waxay ahayd aragti gaaban oo ku siman danaha siyaada Kacaanka.

Boobkii Xeebaha Dadka Somalida


Xeebaha bada Cas Somalia xaruntu markaas ay Zeila (Saylac) u ahayd ma ayn ilaa xiligii qarnigii 16aad mid madaxbananeyd. Boqortooyada Osmaniya (Turkey) ayaa in mudo halkaa ka talinaysay isla markasna danaheeda ilaalinta shixnada bada Cas mareysa ma dhafsiisneyn. Xiligii 1870 ninkii la oran jiray Khadive Ismail (Ismail Pasha) oo dhalashadiisu Masri ahayd ayaa wakiil boqortoyada Osmaniyada oo Masar saldhigeeda ugu wayn Africa uga ahaa. Khadive Pasha waxa xiliga uu Zeila jogay xukunkiisa ku balaariyey ilaa Harar, Bulhar iyo Berbera. Khadive Pasha dhaq-dhaqaaqa dhul doonka uu Somaliya ka waday ma ahayn mid Boqortooday Osmaiyada ay ka warhayso wuxuu ahaa nin damaaci badan 1875kii wuxu xitaa qay xukunkiisa hoos keenay Kismayo dhanka Kenya xiga ka dib markii bada kaga duulay.

Xiligaa Ingliisku ayaa warqad Osmaniyaa Boqortooyada u qort in ay ku heshiiyaan in Boqortooyad Osmaniyada aysan maamulkeeda xeebaha bariga Africa soo dhaafi karin Ras-Hafun. Boqortayada Osmaniyada heshiiska Inglishk u soo bandhigtay waa diiday laakin Khadive Ismail oo asal ahaan Masri ah Osmaniyada wakiil hawlaha geeska Africa uga ah ayaa Ingiliishka heshiis hoose la galey arimo gacansi la yeeshay oo isaga gaar u ah.

Tarikhdu markii ahayd 1884kii ayaa Osmaniyada xaruntiisa Masar waxaa culayska soo saaray kacdoon dhanka Sudan kaga yimid oo hogaaminayo Mahdigii Masar. Sidaa darteed Kadive Ismail oo ku adkaatay in xeebaha bada Cas ee Somaliya gacantiisa ku sii jirto aya Ingliiska oo Yemen saldhig ciidan wayn ku leh awalna Khadive Ismial gacan saar dhanka u soo dhoofinta xoolaha nool askarta Ingliiska la lahaa kula heshiiyay in Ingliishka xarumihiisa la wareegto ee Somalia laakin sharuud uga dhigay in Calanka Masar halkaa ka taagnaado.

Captain Frederick Mercer Hunter oo ahaa Sargaal sare ayaa arintaa ula muuqatay fursad wuxuuna mudo kooban 40 Askari kaliya xeebta Zeila kala soo degay. Isla xiliyadaa wadama badan oo European ayaa baadi goob ugu jiray xeebaha bada Cas in ay xarumo ka sameystaan sida Germany iyo Russia. France waxay degtay Obokh (Obock) oo Djibouti ah Italy 1885kii oo gara ciidan ka heshay Ingliisku iyaduna waxay doonyaheeda ku xiratay oo qabsatey Massawa, Eritrea. Ingriiska sababta ay Talyaaniga u soo dhaweysanayso xiligaa waxay wiiqaysay awooda Fransiiska ku yeelan karo gacanka Bada Cas.

RM: tarikhdan waxay cadeen u tahay in Arabtu siiba Masar ay Somali Yurub u gacan galisay dhanka Bada Cas. Waxaan qormada qaybteeda dambe ku cadayndoonaa in Said Barqash oo Omani aha saldhigiisanu markaa ahaa Zanzibar ay Italy warqda ogolaashaha in xeebta Banaadir uu xarun ciidan ka sameysan karo u soo qoray raalina uga noqday.

Xeeshii Briton & Italy Vs Kala Qaybsanantii Madax Dhaqamedyada

Taarikhda reer Yurub Somalida ka qoreen laga soo bilaabo 1884kii gumaysigii waxa ku cad in dawladaha Ingiriiska iyo Talyanigu dal walba xeyn-daabtay inta awoodiisa ciidan iyo xeeshiisa gaarsiis kartay.

Ingiriiska iyo Talyaniga dhulka Somalidu degto kala qoqabka ama xayndaabinta dhulka Somalida ma aha mid ku yimid inta badan awood ciidan ay dadka ku qabsadeen. Ee wuxuu ahaa mid ku saleysan heshiis ay la galeen qabaa’ilada Somaliyed madax dhaqameed walbana heshiiska ku galeen dhulka inta ceelasha reerkiisa ka cabaan ku salaysan in amnigooda la sugo. Amnigu xiligaa wuxu ahaa baahida ugu badan uu qabo qays walba oo meel dagan.

Waxa jira iyana qabaa’ilo Somalida ka mida aysan wadamadan reer Yurub isbalaarinay aysan haba yaraatee wax heshiis ah oo dhulkooda kala galin. Qabaa’ilo heshiis si toosa ula galey oo axdi wadareed ah loo diiwaan galiyey. Iyo qabaa’il aan reer Yurub dagaal iyo heshiistoona la galin dhulka ay dagan yihiin la iska xermaystay waana sidan:

1) Mida hore in qabiilka ay dirir ka dhaxeysay oo ay xoog ku qabsadeen dhulkooda sida qabiilada Darwashita ku jiray; Dhulbahantaha (Darawishtu mudo labaatan sano ku dhaw ayay British la dagaalameen).

“Since, the majority of the dervish fighters hailed from the Dhulbahante clan, as a consequence the British considered them as hostile clans” By I.M. Lewis

Mooqifka Ingriisku ka taagnaa qabiilka Dhulbahante (markaa ay ku sheegen Dhulbahante la isku yiraahdo 50 qabiil) darteed maadama ay dirir 20 sano socotay ka dhaxaysay sheegashada Ingriiska deeganka waqooyi Somalia sida xadkiisana ku cadeeyay ma ahayn mid qabiilka Said Harti (Dhulbahante) laga tala galiyey oo heshiis Dhulbahante ku yimid.

2) Qabiilo ay Suladintooda heshiis la galeen waa; Majerten, Warsangali & Isaq (Talyanigu waxa u heshiis la galay Majerten; Suldan Kenadid & Boqor Osman, halka Ingriska  heshiis la galey Isaq & Warsangali; Suldaan Cali Shire & Suldan Keynadiid)

“Treaties of protection were signed by the British with those Somali tribes that were amenable”.

3) Mida labaad in dhulka ay wada dagaan qabiilo badan aan talo wadaag ahayn islamarkaasna cid lagala heshiiyo rasmiya aysan jirin sida koonfurta Somalia inta badan Talyanigu qabiilada wax heshiis ah lama galin.

Xuduudo macmal ah dhexdooda somaysteen Yurub sababta ugu wayna waxay ahayd Ingliiska iyo Talyaniga ma ahayn laba dal oo xiriir siyaasadeed leh bal waxay ahaayeen kuwa dirir ka dhaxeyso qadiyadaha awood balaarisiga ku salaysnaa ee Yurub ka jiray xiligaa si ba’an ay ugu kala qaybsanaayeen.

Xadadkaan ayaa dhaliyey markii laba qabiil oo diris ahaa midna Briton la heshis la galey midna Italy halkaasna laba qabiil carshin iyo daaqsin wadaaga laba dowladood oo laba calan kala wata ka kala mid noqdeen…..

La soco waxaa qaybta 2aad qormadaan ku soo qadanayaa ama kaga jawaabayaa:

• Taariikhda rasmiga qabaa’ilada Somaliyeed heshiiska la galeen dalalkii European dhulkooda yimid
• Heshiisku madax-dhaqameedyadu ay Isticmaarka la galeen muxu ahaa yaase ku faa’ida qabay
• Dhulka ay kala xeyndaabteen laba dal Somalida qaybsadey ma laba Gobol bay ahaayen (territory) mise laba dal bay kala ahaayeen? Ka hor aqoonsigi Somalia Caalamka dal buuxa loo aqoosadey 1960kii Somalia maxaa loo aqoon sanaa.

Qayb ka mida qormada 2aad:

“Admiral Atkinson-Willes despatched an intelligence officer in HMS Fox with a letter to Sultan Ali Yusuf of Obbia, asking him if Illig could be re-populated with the Esa Mahmoud tribe who had resided there before the Mullah occupied the location”

“Admiral Atkinson-Willes wuxu diray mid ka mida ciidanka sirdoonka ‘HMS Fox’ ka soo qaaday waraaq ku socota Suldan Ali Yusuf of Obbia (Hobyo) uu ka codsanayo in dib loogu soo celiyo deegaanka Illig (Eyl) qabiilka Issa Mohamud oo ahaa qabiilkii halkaa degnaa inta Sayid Mohamed uusan kordigin”


Reference:

Official History of the Operations in Somaliland 1901-1904.

I. M. Lewis
American Anthropologist
New Series, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Feb., 1961), pp. 94-112
[
The Scramble for Africa by Thomas Pakenham.

Jardine, Douglas, The Mad Mullah of Somaliland. 1923, Herbert Jenkins Ltd., London

Qore: Othman A. Mohamud 

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